What is Statistical testing

A test design technique in which a model of the statistical distribution of the input is used to construct representative test cases.

What is Site acceptance testing. 

Acceptance testing by users/customers at their site, to determine whether or not a component or system satisfies the user/customer needs and fits within the business processes, normally including hardware as well as software.

What is Pair testing.

Two persons, e.g. two testers, a developer and a tester, or an end-user and a tester, working together to find defects. Typically, they share one computer and trade control of it while testing.

What is Isolation testing. 

Testing of individual components in isolation from surrounding components,with surrounding components being simulated by stubs and drivers, if needed.

What is Conversion testing. 

Testing of software used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.

What is Code coverage. 

An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test suite and which parts have not been executed, e.g. statement coverage, decision coverage or condition coverage.

What is Business processbased testing. 

It is an approach to testing in which test cases are designed based on descriptions and/or knowledge of business processes.

What is Branch testing. 

A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute branches.

What is Boundary value. 

An input value or output value which is on the edge of an equivalence partition or at the smallest incremental distance on either side of an edge, for example the minimum or maximum value of a range.

What is Blocked test case. 

A test case that cannot be executed because the preconditions for its execution are not fulfilled.

Whats is Thread testing? 

A version of component integration testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by levels of a hierarchy.

List down features of coverage measurement tool? 

Features of coverage measurement tool include support for: 
i. Identifying coverage items (instrumenting the code). 
ii. Calculating the percentage of coverage items that were exercised by a suite of tests. 
iii. Reporting coverage items that have not been exercised as yet. 
iv. Identifying test inputs to exercise as yet uncovered items (test design tool functionality). 
v. Generating stubs and drivers (if part of a unit test framework).

What is coverage measurement tool? 

A coverage tool is a tool that provides objective measures of what structural elements eg. statements, decisions, or branches have been exercised by a test suite.

List down features of test comparator. 

Features of test comparator include support for: i. Dynamic comparison of transient events that occur during test execution. ii. Post-execution comparison of stored data eg. in files or databases. iii. Masking or filtering of subsets of actual and expected results.

What is test comparator? 

Test comparator is a test tool to perform automated test comparison. Automated test comparison is a process of identifying differences between the actual results produced by the component or system under test and the expected results for a test. Test comparison can be performed during test execution (dynamic comparison) or after test execution.

List down features of test harness and unit test framework tools.

Features of test harness and unit test framework tools include support for
i. Supplying inputs to the software being tested. 
ii. Receiving outputs generated by the software being tested. 
iii. Executing a set of tests within the framework or using the test harness.
iv. Recording the pass/fail results of each test (framework tools). 
v. Storing tests (framework tools). 
vi. Support for debugging (framework tools). 
vii. Coverage mesurement at code level (framework tools).

What is unit test framework tool?

Unit test framework tool provides an environment for unit or component testing in which a component can be tested in isolation or with suitable stubs and drivers. Tool also provides other support for the developer, such as debugging capabilities.

What is test harness? 

Test harness is a test environment comprised of stubs and drivers needed to execute a test.

List down features of test execution tool. 

Features of test execution tools include support for 
i. Capturing (recording)test inputs while tests are executed manually. 
ii. Storing an expected result in the form of a screen or object to compare to, the next time the test is run. 
iii. Executing tests from stored scripts and optionally data files accessed by the script (if data driven or keyword driven scripting is used). 
iv. Dynamic comparison (while the test is running) of screens, elements, links, controls, objects and values. 
v. Ability to initiate post execution comparison. 
vi. Logging results of tests run (pass/fail, differences between expected and actual results). 
vii. Masking or filtering of subsets of actual and expected results, eg. excluding the screen displayed current date and time which is not of interest to a particular test. 
viii. Measuring timings for tests. 
ix. synchronizing inputs with the application under test eg. wait until the application is ready to accept the next input, or insert a fixed delay to represent human interaction speed. 
x. Sending summary results to a test management tool.

What is capture/playback tool? 

Capture and playback tool is a type of test execution tool where inputs are recorded during manual testing in order to generate automated test scripts that can be executed later (i.e replayed). These tools are often used to support automated regression testing

List down features of test design tool. 

Features of test design tools include support for i. Generating test input values from: requirements, design models(state,data or object), code, graphical user interfaces, test conditions. ii. Generating expected results, if an oracle is available to the tool.

What is test design tool? 

Test design tool is a tool that supports the test design activity by generating test inputs from a specification that may be held in a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool repository eg. a requirements management tool, or from specified test conditions held in a tool itself or from code.

What is testware? 

Testware are the artifacts produced during the test process required to plan, design, and execute tests, such as documentation, scripts, inputs, expected results, set-up and clear-up procedures, files, databases, environment, and any additional software or utilities used in testing.

List down features of configuration management tool.

Features of configuration management tools include support for i. Storing information about versions and builds of the software and testware. ii. Traceability between software and testware and different versions or variants. iii. Keeping track of which versions belong with which configurations (OS, libraries, browsers). iv. Build and release management. v. Baseline. vi. Access control (checking in and out).

What is a configuration management tool? 

Configuration management tool provides support for the identification and control of configuration items, their status over changes and versions, and the release of baselines consisting of configuration items.

List down features of defect management tool.

Features of defect management tools include support for i. Storing information about the attributes of incidents (eg. severity) ii. Storing attachments (eg. screenshots). iii. Prioritization of incidents. iv. Assigning actions to people (fix,confirmation test, etc.) v. Status of incident (eg. open, rejected, duplicate, deferred, close). vi. Reporting of statistics/metrics about incidents (eg. number of defects with each status, total number defects raised, open, closed).

What is incident management or defect management tool?

Defect management tool is a tool that facilitates the recording or status tracking of incidents or defects. They often have workflow oriented facilities to track and control the allocation, correction and re-testing of incidents (confirmation testing) and provide reporting facilities.

List down features of requirements management tool.

Features of requirements management tools include support for 
  1. Storing requirement statements. 
  2. Storing information about requirement attributes. 
  3. Checking consistency of requirements. 
  4. Identifying undefined, missing or to be defined later requirements. 
  5. Prioritizing requirements for testing purposes. 
  6. Traceability of requirements to tests and tests to requirements, functions or features. 
  7. Traceability through level of requirements. 
  8. Interfacing to test management tools. 
  9. Coverage of requirements by a set of tests.

What is requirements management tool? 

Requirements management tool is a tool that supports the recording of requirements, requirements attributes (eg. priority, person responsible) and facilitates traceability through layers of requirements and requirements change management. Some requirements management tools also provide facilities for static analysis, such as consistency checking and violations to pre-defined requirements rules.

List down the features of test management tool. 

Features of test management tools includes: 
  1. Management of tests eg. keeping track of associated data for a given set of tests, knowing which tests need to run in a common environment, number of tests planned, written, run, passed or failed. 
  2. Scheduling of tests to be executed. 
  3. Management of testing activities i.e. time spent in test design, test execution, whether we are on schedule or on budget. 
  4. Interfaces to other tools such as: test execution tools, incident management tools, requirement management tools, configuration management tools. 
  5. Traceability of tests, test results and defects to requirements or other sources. 
  6. Logging test results. 
  7. Preparing progress reports based on metrics such as tests run and tests passed, incidents raised, defects fixed and outstanding.

What is test management tool? 

Test management tool provides support to the test management and control part of a test process. It has several capabilities such as testware management, scheduling of tests, logging of results, progress tracking, incident management and test reporting. Information in this tool can be used to monitor testing process and decide what actions to take. This tool also gives information about the component or system being tested. Test management tool help to gather, organize and communicate information about the testing on a project.

What is decision table and decision table testing? 

Decision table is a table showing combination of inputs and/or stimuli(causes) with their associated outputs and/or actions(effects), which can be used to design test cases. Decision table testing is a black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute the combinations of inputs and/or stimuli(causes) shown in a decision table.

Mention different testing techniques? 

Testing techniques may be broadly classified in Static testing and Dynamic testing. 

Static testing techniques do not execute the code and are generally used before any tests are executed on the software. Reviews, walkthroughs and inspection constitute static testing techniques. 

Dynamic testing techniques are sub divided into three categories: 
  1. Specification based (black box): Specification based include both functional and non functional techniques. Further equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, decision tables and state transition testing are specification based techniques 
  2. Structure based (white box): Structure based testing techniques use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are white box techniques. Code coverage, decision coverage, statement coverage, structural testing and white box testing are structure based techniques. 
  3. Experience based: In experience based techniques, peoples knowledge, skills and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. Error guessing and exploratory testing come under experience based testing techniques.

What is a compiler? 

Compiler is a software tool that translates programs expressed in a high order language into their machine language equivalents.

What is back-to-back testing?

Back-to-back testing is the testing in which two or more variants of a component or system are executed with the same inputs and outputs are compared and analyzed in cases of discrepancies.

What is top down testing? 

Top down is incremental approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.

What is state table? 

State table is a grid showing the resulting transitions for each state combined with each possible event, showing both valid and invalid transitions.

What is state diagram? 

State diagram depicts the states that a component or system can assume and shows the events or circumstances that cause and/or result from a change from one state to another

What is state transition testing? 

A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute valid and invalid transitions.

What is scalability and its testing? 

The capability of the software product to be upgraded to accommodate increased loads is scalability. Testing to determine the scalability of the software product is called scalability testing.

What is audit trail? 

Audit trail is the path by which the original input to a process (eg. data) can be traced back through the process, taking the process output as a starting point. This facilitates defect analysis and allows a process audit to be carried out.content of the products to be produced.

What is an audit in software testing? 

Audit is an independent evaluation of software products or processes to ascertain compliance to standards, guidelines, specifications, and/or procedures based on objective criteria, including documents that specify: 
1. The form or content of the products to be produced. 
2. The process by which the products shall be produced. 
3. How compliance to standards or guidelines shall be measured.

What is bottom-up testing?

Bottom-up testing is an incremental approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, and then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. This process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

What is big-bang testing? 

Big-bang testing is a type of integration testing in which software elements, hardware elements, or both are combined all at once into a component or an overall system, rather than in stages.

What is resource utilization testing? 

The capability of the software product to use appropriate amounts and types of resources, for eg. the amounts of main and secondary memory used by the program and sizes of required temporary or overflow files, when the software performs its function under stated conditions. The process of testing to determine the resource utilization of a software product is called resource utilization testing.

What information does a release note contain? 

Release note document identifies test items, their configuration, current status and other delivery information delivered by development to users, to testing, and possibly other stake holders, at the start of a test execution phase.

What is exception handling? 

Behavior of a component or system in response to erroneous input, from either a human user or from another component or system, or to an internal failure.

What is capability maturity model integration(CMMI)? 

CMMI is a framework that describes the key elements of an effective product development and maintenance process. CMMI covers best practices for planning, engineering, and managing product development and maintenance. CMMI is designated successor of the CMM.

What is capability maturity model(CMM)? 

CMM is a five level staged framework that describes the key elements of an effective software process. CMM covers best practices for planning, engineering, and managing software development and maintenance.

What is meant by off-the-shelf software? 

A software product that is developed for the general market, i.e. for a large number of customers, and that is delivered to many customers in identical format is known as off-the-shelf software.

What is low-level test case? 

A test case with concrete(implementation level) values for input data and expected results. Logical operators from high-level test cases are replaced by actual values that correspond to the objectives of the logical operators.

What is high-level test case?

A test case without concrete(implementation level) values for input data and expected results. Logical operators are used; instances of the actual values are not yet defined and/or available.

What is memory leak?

A defect in a programs dynamic store allocation logic that causes it to fail to release memory after it has finished using it, eventually causing the program to fail due to lack of memory.

What is negative testing? 

Tests aimed at showing that a component or system does not work. Negative testing is related to the testers attitude rather than a specific test approach or test design technique. eg. testing with invalid input values or exceptions.

What is Agile development ? 

Agile development is an iterative type of software development life cycle model. Extreme programming(XP) is currently one of the most well-known agile development life cycle models. Some of the important characteristics of XP or extreme programming are: 
1. Demands an onsite customer for continual feedback and to define and carry out functional acceptance testing. 
2. Promotes pair programming and shared code ownership amongst the developers. 
3. States that component test scripts shall be written before the code is written and that those tests should be automated.
4. states that integration and testing of the code shall happen several times a day. With XP there are numerous iterations each requiring testing. XP is not about doing extreme activities during development process, it is about doing known value adding activities in an extreme manner.

What is robustness and robustness testing? 

The degree to which a component or system can function correctly in the presence of invalid inputs or stressful environmental conditions is called robustness. Testing to determine the robustness of the software product is robustness testing.

What is Rapid Application Development(RAD)? 

RAD is formally a software development life cycle model where parallel development of functions and subsequent integration takes place. Components or functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini projects, the developments are time boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can very quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Rapid change and development is possible using this methodology. An early business focused solution in the market place gives an early return on investment(ROI) and can provide valuable marketing information for the business.

What is a review? 

An evaluation of a product or project status to ascertain discrepancies from planned results and to recommend improvements. Eg. management review, informal review, technical review, inspection and walkthrough. Reviews help to detect defects at an early stage thereby reducing rework costs and improving quality. Review is a type of static testing.

What is interoperability and interoperability testing? 

The capability of the software product to interact with one or more specified components or systems is called interoperability. The process of testing to determine the interoperability of a software product is called interoperability testing.

What is a test approach?

Test approach is the implementation of test strategy for a specific project. It typically includes the decisions made based on the project goal and the risk assessment carried out, starting points regarding the test process, the test design techniques to be applied, exit criteria and test types to be performed.

What is reliability and reliability testing? 

The ability of the software product to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time, or for a specified number of operations is termed as reliability. The process of testing to determine the reliability of a software product is called reliability testing.

What is maintenance and maintenance testing? 

Modification of a software product after delivery to correct defects, to improve performance or other attributes, or to adapt the product to a modified environment is called maintenance. Testing the changes to an operational system or the impact of a changed environment to an operational system is maintenance testing.

What is portability testing? 

The ease with which the software product can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another is called portability. The process of testing to determine the portability of a software product is called portability testing.

What is stub and driver and how is it useful in component testing? 

Stub : A skeletal or special purpose implementation of a software component, used to develop or test a component that calls or is otherwise dependent on it. It replaces a called component. 
Driver : A software component or test tool that replaces a component that takes care of the control and/or the calling of a component or system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components in a simple manner. 

A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.

What is component testing?

Component testing is testing of an individual software components. It is also known as unit, module and program testing, searches for defects in, and verifies the functioning of software (eg. modules, programs, objects, classes etc.) that are separately testable.

Why is RTM or requirement traceability matrix important? 

RTM or traceability is important in following most common scenarios taking place in software testing: 1. Requirements for a given function or feature have changed. Some of the fields have different ranges that can be entered. Test cases now have to be changed. How many tests will actually be affected by this change in the requirements? These questions can be easily answered if traceability is followed. 2. A set of tests that has run OK in the past has started to have serious problems. Traceability between the tests and the requirement being tested enables the functions or features affected to be identified more easily. 3. Before delivering a new release, we want to know whether or not we have tested all the specified requirements in specification document. One may quickly know the tests that have passed and whether every requirement was tested or not.

When should one stop testing? Exit criteria which is mentioned in software test plan is to define when to stop testing, typically exit criteria may consist of: 
1. Critical or key test cases successfully completed. Certain test cases even if they fail may not be show stoppers.
2. Functional coverage, code coverage, meeting the client requirements to certain point. 
3. Defect rates fall below certain specified level and High priority bugs are resolved.
4. Project progresses from Alpha, to beta and so on. 
5. Testing budget of the project are been depleted. Or when the cost of continued testing does not justify the project cost. 
6. Project deadline and test completion deadline.

What is configuration control or version control?

An element of configuration management, consisting of the evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration identification.

What is a defect or bug or fault?

A flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function eg. an incorrect statement or data definition. A defect if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the component or system.

What is quality?

Quality is the degree to which a component, system or process meets specified requirements and/or user/customer needs and expectations.

What is waterfall model and its disadvantages? 

In waterfall model, tasks are executed in sequential fashion. Waterfall model starts with a feasibility study and flow down through various project tasks finishing with implementation. Design flows into development, which in turn flows into build, and finally into test. User requirements > System requirements > Global design > Detailed design > Implementation > Testing. Testing tends to happen towards the end of the project life cycle so, defects are detected close to live implementation date. Thus, V model was developed to address some of problems experienced using traditional waterfall model. V model illustrates how testing activities can be integrated into each phase of SDLC.

What all factors are considered when choosing a test technique?

Internal factors that influence the decision about which technique to use are: 
1. Models used - Testing technique depends on which model is been used. eg. If specification contains a state transition diagram, state transition testing would be a good technique to use. 
2. Tester knowledge/experience - How much testers know about the system and about testing techniques will clearly influence their choice of testing techniques. 
3. Likely defects - Knowledge of likely defects could be gained through experience of testing a previous version of system and previous levels of testing on current version. 
4. Test objective - If objective is for thorough testing then more rigorous and detailed techniques should be chosen. If objective is only for gaining confidence then use cases would be a sensible approach. 
5. Documentation - Whether or not documentation exists and whether or not it is up to date will affect the choice of testing technique. 
6. Life cycle model - A sequential life cycle model will lend itself to the use of more formal techniques whereas an iterative life cycle model may be better suited to using an exploratory testing approach. 

External factors that influence the decision about which technique to use are: 
1. Risk - The greater the risk, the greater the need for more thorough and more formal testing. 
2. Customer/contractual requirements - Sometimes contracts specify which technique to be used. 
3. Type of system - The type of system eg. Embedded, graphical, financial etc. will influence choice of testing technique. 
4. Regulatory requirements - Some industries have regulatory standards guidelines that govern the testing techniques used. 
5. Time and budget - Ultimately how much time is available and budget will affect choice of testing technique.

Give the template for test case specification according to IEEE 829 standards

Template for test case specification include: 
1. Test case specification identifier. 
2. Test items. 
3. Input specifications. 
4. Output specifications. 
5. Environmental needs. 
6. Special procedural requirements. 
7. Intercase dependencies.

What is test case specification? 

A document specifying a set of test cases (objective, inputs, test actions, expected results and execution preconditions) for a test item.

Give the template for test design specification according to IEEE 829 standards

Template for test design specification include: 
1. Test design specification identifier.
2. Features to be tested. 
3. Approach refinements. 
4. Test identification. 
5. Feature pass/fail criteria.

What is test design specification? 

Test design specification is a document specifying the test conditions (coverage items) for a test item, the detailed test approach and associated high level test cases.

What is use case testing? 

A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute user scenarios.

What is a use case? 

A use case is a description of a particular use of the system by an actor (a user of the system). Each use case describes the interactions the actor has with the system in order to achieve a specific task. Use cases are a sequence of steps that describe the interactions between the actor and the system.

What is configuration management? 

Configuration Management is the process of identifying and defining the items in the system, controlling the change of these items throughout their lifecycle, recording and reporting the status of items and change requests, and verifying the completeness and correctness of items. 
Configuration management usually includes: 
1. Identify configuration items eg. source code, test scripts, third party software, hardware, test documentation. 
2. Version control of configuration items. 
3. Release management. 
4. Build management. 
5. Controlling changes 
6. Tracking status. 
7. Auditing.

Mention some of the common risks involved during testing of a product. 

Some of the common risks are: 
1. Excessive change to the product that invalidates test results or requires an update to test cases, expected results and environments.
2. Insufficient or unrealistic test environments that yield misleading results. 
3. Organizational issues such as shortage of resources, skills or training, problems with communicating and responding to test results, complexity of project team. 
4. Hardware crunch, failure in hardware resulting in time constraint. 
5. Technical problems related to ambiguous, conflicting or non-prioritized requirements etc. 
6. Software items not getting installed in test environment.

What is risk mitigation?

Risk mitigation involves actions implemented to reduce the impact and likelihood of a risk happening.

What is risk analysis and risk management?

Risk is a factor that could result in future negative consequences, usually expressed as impact. A risk analysis involves identifying the most probable threats to an organization and analyzing the related vulnerabilities of the organization to these threats. Risk management involves the strategy employed to prevent potential risks.

What is error guessing? 

A test design technique where the experience of the tester is used to anticipate what defects might be present in the component or system under test as a result of errors made, and to design tests specifically to expose them.

What is exploratory testing?

A test design technique where the tester actively controls the design of the tests as those tests are performed and uses information gained while testing to design new and better tests. It is hands on approach and invovles minimum planning and maximum test execution.

What is keyword driven testing? 

Keyword driven testing is a scripting technique that uses data files to contain not only test data and expected results, but also keywords related to application being tested.The keywords are interpreted by special supporting scripts that are called by the control script for the test.

What is data driven testing?

Data driven testing is a scripting technique that stores test input and expected results in a table or spreadsheet, so that a single control script can execute all the tests in the table. Data driven testing is often used to support the application of test execution tools such as capture/playback tools.

What is boundary value analysis? 

BVA is a black box test design technique in which test cases are designed based on boundary values. A boundary value may be input value or output value which is on the edge of an equivalence partition or at the smallest incremental distance on either side of an edge. For example: If input condition specifies a range bounded by values a and b, test cases should include a and b, values just above and just below a and b.

What is equivalence partitioning?

Input data of a program is divided into different partitions so that test cases can be designed for each partition of input data. Objective of equivalence partitioning is to come out with the test cases so that error are uncovered and test cases can be carried out more efficiently. This is one of the black box technique, eg. if input condition specifies a range say 4 to 10, then one valid i.e any value between 4 to 10 say 6 is valid and two invalid first is less than 4 and second is greater than 10 equivalence classes are defined.

What is dynamic testing?

Dynamic testing invovles the execution of the software application or system and finding out the defects. Dynamic testing may include different testing types eg. unit testing, functionality testing ,system testing, integration testing etc.

What is static testing?

Testing of a system at specification or implementation level without execution of that software eg. reviews, walkthroughs or static code analysis.

What is localization testing, also known as L10n testing? 

Localization refers to the process, on a properly internationalized base product, of translating messages and documentation as well as modifying other locale specific files for a specific region or language. This type of testing ensures that all the text present on the applications GUI, any text/messages that application is producing including error message/warning and help/documentation has been localized. This type of testing is abbreviated as L10n where 10 stands for the number of letters between the first l and last n in localization. Globalization is the term used for the combination of internationalization and localization.

What is internationalization testing, also known as i18n testing? 

Internationalization is the process of designing and coding a product so it can perform properly when it is modified for use in different languages and locales. This type of testing is abbreviated as i18n where 18 stands for the number of letters between the first i and last n in internationalization.

What is requirement traceability matrix, RTM? 

Requirement traceability matrix is an important document to ensure whether test cases coverage is 100% or not. It might be possible that due to human errors, there is no test case for an important requirement. In RTM, requiremnts are mapped with test cases. Template of the matrix may contain Requirement Details like Req. ID /Status, Release Reference, Architecture Document Element ID, Test Cases IDs, Program Name / ID, Dependent Requirement etc. Tester should ensure that all requirement ids have been covered in requirement traceability matrix.

What are common problems in software development process? 

Listed are the most common problems in software development process: 
  1. Requirements are not clear. 
  2. Requirements keep on changing. 
  3. Incorrect understanding of requirements. 
  4. Improper communication with client or customer. 
  5. Improper communication within developers and testers. 
  6. Assumptions made by tester without communicating with proper channel.

What is defect severity?

Severity of a defect is what impact defect has on the application. It is possible that high severity defect has low priority and vice versa. It is usually categorized as high, medium and low. Example: High severity and low priority – An application supports both UI and command line interface. A command line switch is not working correctly, so it has high severity. If the customers are not using this switch and prefer UI interface then it will have low priority.

What is defect priority?

Priority of a defect is how urgent it is that the defect should be fixed. Usually categorized as urgent, high, medium and low. Example: High priority and low severity – Company logo is missing or spelling mistake in company name on the product is of high priority defect but has no impact on the functionality of the application so the severity is less.

What is testing methodology? 

Testing Methodology define process, set of rules and principle which are followed by group concerned with testing the application. Following are the steps to ensure proper process is been followed to create an application with minimum defects: i)Test Requirement Analysis - Study of requirements. ii) Test Plan - Includes which features will be tested and features which are not going to be tested, types of testing, resources and responsibilities, assumptions, risk analysis, deliverables of the documents, tools to be used, which OS to be used, how the defects will be tracked, which tool will be used to track defects etc . iii)Test Design - Which types of testing will be carried out eg. Unit, system,integration,performance testing etc. iv)Test execute - Preparing and executing test cases and requirements traceability matrix to ensure not a single requirement is been missed and ensuring good test coverage for critical requirements. v)Defect track - Tracking of defects. vi)Test Automation - Implementing automation using tools like QTP, Silk test etc. vii)Test Maintain - Updating test cases and testing the software whenever it has undergone changes.

What is STP, software test plan? 

STP, Software Test Plan includes: 
01. Scope of testing :: Which features will be tested and features which will not to be tested. 
02. Test entrance and exit criteria. 
03. Test environment :: Information regarding hardware, software, environment configuration like browser compatibility, localization and globalization. 
04. Test strategy :: Testing process: identify the requirement, test design , preparation of test cases, test data, test setup, establishing test environment, test execution and test report. It also contains information regarding types of testing to be used like Functionality testing, Load testing, Parallel testing etc. and build process to be followed.
05. Information regarding defect tracking tool. 
06. Roles and responsibilities- This section includes who all resources will be working and their roles and responsibilities for proper communication with clients.
07. Test schedule :: Contains information about detail test schedule. 
08. Assumptions :: Includes any assumptions followed by testers while designing test cases to avoid any miscommunication. 
09. Risk management :: Risk may be resources crunch, hardware unavailability, lack of domain knowledge etc. Mitigation is the plan as to how will testers avoid the mentioned risk. 
10. Dependencies and constrains :: Information about internal or external dependencies in executing test cases. 
11. Test deliverables :: Information about the documents (like STP, Test cases, BAR, TSR) with planned dates and responsible person. 
12. Defect clarification :: Define severity and priority for defects.

What is beta testing?

After alpha testing product goes into beta stage, in this testing product is released at customers site and end users test the product in live environment.

What is Soak Testing (also called Endurance testing)? 

As its name suggests soak testing is the process where application is under load for a prolonged period of time. This is useful to ensure application runs as expected even when its resources are in maximum usage for long time. While soak testing memory leaks and CPU usage are also been tested. Compared to load testing, soak testing is performed for a long period of time.

What is recoverability Testing? 

Testing performed to check the behaviour of the application when back end or front end or important module of the application is not working. Application should be able to handle the situation and recover lost data if any.

What is alpha testing? 

Alpha testing is done by customers at the developers site, but outside the development area. Though alpha testing takes place in a controlled environment this stage is useful to know whether the product is stable and capable to release or not.

What is intersystems testing? 

Testing performed to ensure interfaces between back end and front end is functioning correctly is called intersystems testing. As front end (VB, VC, CPP etc.) and back end(Oracle, Sybase, SQL etc.) are in different languages such testing is called intersystems. Interfaces between these applications should be able to talk with each other efficiently and correctly.

What is compliance testing (also called as conformance testing)? 

Compliance testing is to test whether the product follows the standards agreed upon. This type of testing verifies whether configuration standards and all the standards stated upon are been met or not.

What is compatibility testing? 

Testing performed on different platforms or different system configuration to test whether application is functional on all configurations so that different type of users can use the application is called compatibility testing. The best example of compatibility testing is to test whether a particular site is compatible in all browsers like Mozilla, Firefox, IE6, IE8 etc.

What is unit testing? 

Testing the smallest unit of the product is unit testing. It involves testing whether the units individually are functioning properly or not. Unit testing is usually carried out by developers.

What is user Interface testing?

User interface testing is the way to test how successful is the product in interacting with the end user. It is graphical representation of all the options and text that helps guide the user to use the product.

What is usability testing?

Usability testing is to check whether end user is able to use the product easily. Usability needs good user interface so that interaction with the end user is productive and user is able to use the product without any intervention.

What is Sanity testing? 

Sanity testing is subset of regression testing, tester only tests few areas of application to verify functionality of application is intact. It is just a cursory testing of affected areas.

What is Smoke testing? 

Smoke testing is been performed by tester before accepting the build for further testing. Tester tests basic major functionalities of the application and checks whether the build is stable enough for further deep testing. Smoke testing involves testing all the major functionalities in an application. Tester has authority to reject the build if basic or major functionality of the application seems breaking.Smoke term comes from electronics field as to test whether circuit is not breaking leading to smoke

What is white box testing? 

White box testing is method where tester tests structure and defects in code apart from the functionality of the application. Tester is aware of the coding standards and structure of the code.

What is black box testing? 

Black box testing is a method where tester tests functionality of the application i.e. whether application meets the specifications given. In this, tester does not look into the code.

What is integration testing? 

Testing whether the product functions correctly after integrating all the modules in the product. This type of testing needs knowledge of how interdependent the modules are and their functionality. Involves testing interfaces between the modules.

What is stress testing? 

Application is subjected to peak load condition until break point is met. Stress testing checks whether application under test is able to sustain this breaking point and how the condition will be handled. In stress testing system resources are under maximum stress.

What is load testing?

Load testing examines the performance of application under heavy loads. Testing the response time of application under heavy loads for a given amount of time with concurrent users. Load testing tests the average load condition application can sustain thereby degrading the performance.

What is performance testing? 

Testing under maximum load conditions to test the performance of the application. Tests the response time of the application for heavy loads with concurrent users for a given amount of time. System resources i.e. hard disk, memory usage, CPU usage are also under test to find out memory leakage defects.

What is parallel testing? 

Testing the new version of the application functions similar with the older version that is working correctly. Ensure that data used for both the versions must be similar so that results can be compared accurately.

What is a test level? 

A group of test activities that are organized and managed together. Example component, integration, system and acceptance testing. Test levels can be combined or reorganized depending on nature of project or system architecture.

What is V-model? 

V-model is a framework which describes the life cycle of software development right from requirements specification to maintenance. It shows the testing activities can be integrated into each phase of software development life cycle.

What is regression testing? 

Testing of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that defects have not been introduced or uncovered in unchanged areas of the software as a result of the changes made. It is performed when the software or its environment is changed.

What is pesticide paradox in software testing? 

If the same tests are repeated over and over again, eventually the same set of test cases will no longer find any new bugs. to overcome this, the test cases need to be regularly reviewed and revised, and new and different tests need to be written to exercise different parts of the software or system to potentially find more defects.

What is defect clustering? 

If a small number of modules contain most of the defects discovered during pre-release testing are show the most operational failures is call defect clustering.

What is test objective? 

A reason or purpose for designing and executing a test.

What is a test case?

Test case is a set of input values, execution preconditions, expected results and execution post conditions, developed for a particular objective or test condition, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

What is a Requirement?

Requirement is a condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective that must be mend or possessed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed document.

What is test basis in software testing? 

All documents from which the requirement of a component or system can be inferred. The document on which the test cases are based. If a document can be amended only by way of formal amendment procedure, then the test basis is called a frozen test basis.

What is Exhaustive testing or Complete testing?

Exhaustive or complete testing is a test approach in which the test suite comprises all combination of input values and preconditions.

What is an error/mistake in software testing?

Error/mistake is a human action that produces an incorrect result.

What is a risk in software testing? 

Risk is a factor that could result in future negative consequences, usually expressed as impact and likelihood.

What is basis test set?

A set of test cases derived from the internal structure of a component or specification to ensure that 100% of a specific coverage criterion will be achieved.

What is Baseline? 

A specification or software product that has been formally reviewed or agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development, and that can be changed only through a formal change control process.

What is Back-to-back testing? 

In Back-to-back testing, two or more variants of a component or system are executed with the same inputs. The outputs are compared. Whenever a difference is observed it is investigated and, if necessary, a correction is applied.

What is ad-hoc testing? 

Adhoc tesing is carried out informally. It is performed without planning and documentation. There is no formal test preparation and no recognized test design technique is used. There are no expectations for results and unpredictability guides the test execution activity.

What is test oracle? 

Test Oracle is a source to determine expected results to compare with the actual result of the software under test. This may be SRS/PRD or from knowledge base.

What is a test condition? 

A test condition is a condition which a tester should follow to test an application. It should be verified by one or more test cases.

What is accessibility testing? 

Accessibility testing is done to test the ease by which users with disabilities can use the software.

What makes a good Software Test engineer? 

A good test engineer has a test to break attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer, a strong desire for quality, intuitive and an attention to detail.

What is acceptance testing? 

Formal testing with respect to user needs, requirements, and business processes conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies the acceptance criteria and to enable the users, customers or other authorized entity to determine whether or not to accept the system. This testing is also called as User Acceptance Testing, UAT.

What are common problems in software development process?

Following are the common problems in software development: 
  1. Requirements not clear. 
  2. Requirements keep on changing 
  3. Improper communication with client or customer. 
  4. Improper communication within developers and testers. 
  5. Assumptions made by tester without communicating with proper channel.

What is Software testing why is it necessary? 

Software Testing is the process to verify functionality of the application under normal and abnormal conditions. Testing is to find out defects in the application. Tester should have negative approach while testing so that he or she can break the functionality taking into consideration negative scenarios.Software testing is necessary to ensure any losses that may cause due to defects in the application.

What are different stages of defect life cycle? 

Following are different stages of software testing: 
  1. Create a defect 
  2. Defect is in open state, assign it to the developer 
  3. Developer fixes it (incase it is a defect, if not it will be closed) 
  4. Defect is in resolve state 
  5. Developer assigns it to the tester 
  6. QA retests it in next version. If defect is reproducible QA opens the defect and reassigns it to developer .  
  7. In this case defect is in reopened state (back to step 2) 
  8. If defect is fixed QA closes it with proper comment as in which it is tested. 
  9. Defect is in closed state.

What are the various documents that are prepared in whole testing life cycle? These documents may vary according to the company/process standards, here are some of the most important and minimum set of documents which should be followed for good quality testing: 
  1. Requirement Analysis – Involves detailed study of the requirements and writing down details as how we interpreted the requirements. 
  2. Software test plan - Includes which features will be tested and features which are not going to be tested, types of testing, tools to be used, which OS, how the defects will be tracked, which tool will be used to track defects etc. 
  3. Test cases - Includes detail steps which will be followed by tester to test the requirement and expected result with defect id and test case created, executed and updated date as well. 
  4. Review report of the test cases - Includes review defects which are found during review of the test cases. 
  5. Requirements traceability matrix - RTM maps each and every requirement to the test cases to ensure that none of the requirements are missed and ensure 100% test case coverage. 
  6. Build acceptance report - BARI is created by the QA lead informing developers whether QA has accepted or rejected the build. If build is been rejected the document includes test cases which are failing. 
  7. Test Summary Report - TSR includes defects summary resulted in testing of a build.

What are the various stages of testing life cycle?

Testing of an application include following stages:
  1. Software test plan 
  2. Requirement understanding 
  3. Writing test cases 
  4. Review of test cases 
  5. Requirement traceability matrix 
  6. Executing test cases 
  7. Reporting bugs 
  8. Repeat the tests.

What is a technical review?

A peer group discussion activity that focuses on achieving agreement on the technical approach to be taken.

What is peer review?

A review of a software work product by colleagues of the producer of the product for the purpose of identifying defects and improvements.

What is a walk-through? 

It is a step-by-step presentation by the author of a document in order to gather information and to establish a common understading of its content. Within a walkthrough the author does most of the preparation. Participants are not required to do a detailed study.

What is validation?

Validation ensures that functionality, as defined in requirements (by client or customer), is the intended behavior of the product; validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed.

What is verification?

Verification ensures the product is designed to deliver all functionality to the customer; it typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements and specifications; this can be done with checklists, issues lists, walk-throughs and inspection meetings.